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Faculty Featured Publications. Please Click on the Link to a View Publication.


Some publications include a layperson summary. Click the download link to view the summary.


Measuring Severity of Carotid Artery Stenosis (Narrowing)

Nicolaides AN, Shifrin EG, Bradbury A, Dhanjil S, Griffin M, Belcaro G, et al. Angiographic and duplex grading of internal carotid stenosis: Can we overcome the confusion? J Endovasc Surg. 1996;3:158-165. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8798134?dopt=Citation


Randomized Trials of Medical Treatment Alone vs Additional Carotid Endartectomy (CEA)

i. Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis:
Hobson RW, 2nd, Weiss DG, Fields WS, Goldstone J, Moore WS, Towne JB, et al. Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Study Group. N Eng J Med. 1993;328:221-227. In this trial ‘asymptomatic’ meant free of any past ipsilateral (same-sided) cerebral infarction. LINK: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199301283280401

Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS). Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. JAMA. 1995;273:1421-1428. In this trial ‘asymptomatic’ meant free of any past ipsilateral (same-sided) or vertebrobasilar stroke/TIA or stroke/TIA in the previous 45 days. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7723155

ii. Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis:
Mayberg MR, Wilson E, Yatsu F, et al, for the Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Studies Program 309 Trialist Group. Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischaemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis. JAMA 1991; 266: 3289–94. In this trial, symptomatic meant the presence of same-sided (ipsilateral) stroke or TIA of the brain or eye within the previous 4 months. LINK: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=393933

European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet 1998; 351: 1379–87. In this trial, symptomatic meant the presence of same-sided (ipsilateral) TIA or mild stroke in the previous 6 months. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9593407?dopt=Citation

North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:1415–25. In this trial, symptomatic meant the presence of same-sided (ipsilateral) TIA or mild stroke in the previous 6 months. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9811916?dopt=Citation

Meta-analysis of these Randomised Trials

Rothwell PM, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov SA, Fox AJ, Taylor DW, Mayberg MR, et al. Analysis of pooled data from the randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Lancet. 2003;361:107-116. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12531577?dopt=Citation

Rothwell PM, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov SA, Warlow CP, Barnett HJ. Sex difference in the effect of time from symptoms to surgery on benefit from carotid endarterectomy for transient ischemic attack and nondisabling stroke. Stroke. 2004;35:2855-2861. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514193


Randomized Trials of Medical Treatment and Early vs Delayed CEA

No medical-treatment-only comparison. In this trial asymptomatic meant free of past ipsilateral (same-sided) stroke, TIA or other relevant neurological symptoms in the past 6 months.

Halliday A, Mansfield A, Marro J, Peto C, Peto R, Potter J, et al. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: Randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;363:1491-1502. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15135594?dopt=Citation

Halliday A, Harrison M, Hayter E, Kong X, Mansfield A, Marro J, et al. 10-year stroke prevention after successful carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis (ACST-1): A multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1074-1084. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20870099?dopt=Citation


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Faculty Featured Publications. Please Click on the Link to a View Publication.

Randomized Trials of CEA vs Carotid Stenting (CAS) for Symptomatic and/or Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis (trials without a medical-treatment-only comparison)

*Brooks WH, McClure RR, Jones MR, Coleman TC, Breathitt L. Carotid angioplasty and stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: randomized trial in a community hospital. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:1589–1595. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11704367?dopt=Citation

*CAVATAS Investigators. Endovascular versus surgical treatment in patients with carotid stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): Lancet. 2001;357:1729–1737. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11403808?dopt=Citation

*Yadav JS, Wholey MH, Kuntz RE, Fayad P, Katzen BT, Mishkel GJ, et al; Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy Investigators. Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1493–1501. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa040127. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14964484

*Mas JL, Chatellier G, Beyssen B, Branchereau A, Moulin T, Becquemin JP, et al; EVA-3S Investigators. Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1660–1671. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa061752. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17050890?dopt=Citation

Eckstein HH, Ringleb P, Allenberg JR, Berger J, Fraedrich G, Hacke W, et al. Results of the stent-protected angioplasty versus carotid endarterectomy (space) study to treat symptomatic stenoses at 2 years: A multinational, prospective, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:893-902. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18774746

*Hoffmann A, Engelter S, Taschner C, Mendelowitch A, Merlo A, Radue E-W, et al. Carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy- a prospective randomised controlled single-centre trial with long-term followup (BACASS). Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 2008;159:84–89. LINK: http://www.sanp.ch/docs/2008/2008-02/2008-02-001.pdf

*International Carotid Stenting Study Investigators, Ederle J, Dobson J, Featherstone RL, Bonati LH, van der Worp HB, de Borst GJ, et al. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375:985–997. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20189239?dopt=Citation

*Brott TG, Hobson RW II, Howard G, Roubin GS, Clark WM, Brooks W, et al; CREST Investigators. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:11–23. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0912321. In this trial of patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis, symptomatic meant the presence of same-sided TIA of the brain or eye or minor non-disabling in the previous 6 months. Asymptomatic meant free of same-sided TIA of the brain or eye or stroke for at least 6 months. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20505173?dopt=Citation

*Trials in which the 30-day rate of stroke and clinically defined heart attack (myocardial infarction, MI) and / or death were reported.

Meta-analysis of these Randomised Trials

Bonati, L. H., P. Lyrer, J. Ederle, R. Featherstone and M. M. Brown (2012). "Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty and stenting for carotid artery stenosis." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12(9): CD000515.LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22972047


Fall in Stroke Risk with Medical Treatment Alone Since Randomized Trials of Medical Treatment vs Additional CEA

Abbott AL, Bladin CF, Levi CR, Chambers BR. What should we do with asymptomatic carotid stenosis? Int J Stroke. 2007;2:27-39. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18705984

Naylor, A. R., P. A. Gaines and P. M. Rothwell (2009). "Who benefits most from intervention for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Patients or professionals?" Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 37: 625-632. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345591

Abbott, A. L. (2009). "Medical (nonsurgical) intervention alone is now best for prevention of stroke associated with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis: results of a systematic review and analysis." Stroke 40(10): e573-583. The definition of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in this meta-analysis was free of any past same-sided stroke or TIA. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696421?dopt=Citation
DOWNLOAD SUMMARY: Short Summary Abbott 2009.pdf

Spence, J. D., V. Coates, H. Li, A. Tamayo, C. Munoz, D. G. Hackam, M. DiCicco, J. DesRoches, C. Bogiatzi, J. Klein, J. Madrenas and R. A. Hegele (2010). "Effects of intensive medical therapy on microemboli and cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis." Arch Neurol 67(2): 180-186. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20008646?dopt=Citation

Raman G, Kitsios GD, Moorthy D, Hadar N, Dahabreh IJ, O'Donnell TF, Thaler DE, Feldmann E and Lau J. Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Technology assessment report. Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center (Project ID: CRDT0510): 2012 Aug 27; 150 pages. Prepared for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); Available on the website of the US National Library of Medicine: LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0070269/. Last accessed 23rd January 2016.

Naylor, A. R. (2011). Time to rethink management strategies in asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 9(2): 116-124. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21989048

Marquardt L, Geraghty OC, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM. Low risk of ipsilateral stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis on best medical treatment: a prospective, population-based study. Stroke. 2010 Jan;41(1):e11-7. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19926843

Abbott AL. Stroke rates associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis and medical treatment alone continue to fall: Results of an updated meta-analysis (late breaking science abstract presented at the AHA International Stroke Conference, 2013). American Heart Association Web site: http://my.americanheart.org/idc/groups/ahamah-public/@wcm/@sop/@scon/documents/downloadable/ucm_448656.pdf Accessed December 11, 2015.

den Hartog AG, Achterberg S, Moll FL, Kappelle LJ, Visseren FL, van der Graaf Y, et al. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and the risk of ischemic stroke according to subtype in patients with clinical manifest arterial disease. Stroke. 2013;44:1002-1007. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23404720


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Faculty Featured Publications. Please Click on the Link to a View Publication.


Fall in Stroke Risk with CEA Since Randomized Trials of Medical Treatment Alone vs Additional CEA

Silver FL, Mackey A, Clark WM, Brooks W, Timaran CH, Chiu D, et al. CREST Investigators. Safety of stenting and endarterectomy by symptomatic status in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST). Stroke. 2011;42: 675–680. LINK http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307169?dopt=Citation

Munster AB, Franchini AJ, Qureshi MI, Thapar A, Davies AH. Temporal trends in safety of carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients: Systematic review. Neurology. 2015;85:365-372. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115734

Abbott AL, Nederkoorn PJ. Outcomes are improving for patients with carotid stenosis. Neurology. 2015;85:302-303. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115731

Kumamaru H, Jalbert JJ, Nguyen LL, Gernhard-Herman MD, Williams LA, Chen CY, et al. Surgeon case volume and 30-day mortality after carotid endarterectomy among contemporary Medicare beneficiaries: before and after national coverage determination for carotid artery stenting. Stroke. 2015;46:1288–1294. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25791713


Particular Hazards of CAS

Bonati LH, Jongen LM, Haller S, Flach HZ, Dobson J, Nederkoorn PJ, et al. New ischaemic brain lesions on MRI after stenting or endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis: A substudy of the international carotid stenting study (ICSS). Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:353-362. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20189458?dopt=Citation

Voeks JH, Howard G, Roubin GS et al. Age and outcomes after carotid stenting and endarterectomy: the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST). Stroke. 2011;42:3484-3490. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21980205

Howard VJ, Lutsep HL, Mackey A, Demaerschalk BM, Sam AD, 2nd, Gonzales NR, et al. Influence of sex on outcomes of stenting versus endarterectomy: A subgroup analysis of the carotid revascularization endarterectomy versus stenting trial (crest). Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:530-537. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21550314?dopt=Citation

Paraskevas KI, Moore WS, Veith FJ. Cost implications of more widespread carotid artery stenting consistent with the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55(52):585-587. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22188738

Abbott, A. L., M. A. Adelman, A. V. Alexandrov, H. J. Barnett, J. Beard, P. Bell, M. Bjorck, D. Blacker, C. J. Buckley, R. P. Cambria, A. J. Comerota, E. S. Connolly, Jr., A. H. Davies, H. H. Eckstein, R. Faruqi, G. Fraedrich, P. Gloviczki, G. J. Hankey, R. E. Harbaugh, E. Heldenberg, S. J. Kittner, T. J. Kleinig, D. P. Mikhailidis, W. S. Moore, R. Naylor, A. Nicolaides, K. I. Paraskevas, D. M. Pelz, J. W. Prichard, G. Purdie, J. B. Ricco, T. Riles, P. Rothwell, P. Sandercock, H. Sillesen, J. D. Spence, F. Spinelli, A. Tan, A. Thapar, F. J. Veith and W. Zhou (2012). "Why the United States Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) should not extend reimbursement indications for carotid artery angioplasty/stenting." Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 43(3): 247-251. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22226698

Abbott, A. L., M. A. Adelman, A. V. Alexandrov, P. A. Barber, H. J. Barnett, J. Beard, P. Bell, M. Bjorck, D. Blacker, L. H. Bonati, M. M. Brown, C. J. Buckley, R. P. Cambria, J. E. Castaldo, A. J. Comerota, E. S. Connolly, Jr., R. L. Dalman, A. H. Davies, H. H. Eckstein, R. Faruqi, T. E. Feasby, G. Fraedrich, P. Gloviczki, G. J. Hankey, R. E. Harbaugh, E. Heldenberg, M. G. Hennerici, M. D. Hill, T. J. Kleinig, D. P. Mikhailidis, W. S. Moore, R. Naylor, A. Nicolaides, K. I. Paraskevas, D. M. Pelz, J. W. Prichard, G. Purdie, J. B. Ricco, P. A. Ringleb, T. Riles, P. M. Rothwell, P. Sandercock, H. Sillesen, J. D. Spence, F. Spinelli, J. Sturm, A. Tan, A. Thapar, F. J. Veith, T. Wijeratne and W. Zhou (2013). "Why calls for more routine carotid stenting are currently inappropriate: an international, multispecialty, expert review and position statement." Stroke 44(4): 1186-1190. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23512977

Abbott , A. L., K. I. Paraskevas and D. J. Spence (2013). "Carotid stenosis" N Engl J Med 369 (24): 2359-60. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24328482

Rantner B, Goebel G, Bonati LH, Ringleb PA, Mas JL, Fraedrich G, et al. The risk of carotid artery stenting compared with carotid endarterectomy is greatest in patients treated within 7 days of symptoms. J Vasc Surg. 2013;57:619-626 e612; discussion 625-616. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237679

Paraskevas KI, Kalmykov EL, Naylor AR. Stroke/death rates following carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy in contemporary administrative dataset registries: A systematic review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26346006


Stratifying Stroke Risk in Patients with Asymptomatic and/or Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis

Nicolaides AN, Kakkos SK, Griffin M, Sabetai M, Dhanjil S, Tegos T, et al. Severity of asymptomatic carotid stenosis and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric ischaemic events: Results from the ACSRS study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;30:275-284. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16130207

Abbott AL, Chambers BR, Stork JL, Levi CR, Bladin CF, Donnan GA. Embolic signals and prediction of ipsilateral stroke or transient ischemic attack in asymptomatic carotid stenosis: A multicenter prospective cohort study. Stroke. 2005;36:1128-1133. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15879327?dopt=Citation

Abbott AL, Levi CR, Stork JL, Donnan GA, Chambers BR. Timing of clinically significant microembolism after carotid endarterectomy. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;23:362-367.LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17268167?dopt=Citation

Nicolaides, A. N., S. K. Kakkos, E. Kyriacou, M. Griffin, M. Sabetai, D. J. Thomas, T. Tegos, G. Geroulakos, N. Labropoulos, C. J. Dore, T. P. Morris, R. Naylor and A. L. Abbott (2010). "Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification." J Vasc Surg 52(6): 1486-1496 e1481-1485. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21146746

Griffin MB, Kyriacou E, Pattichis C, Bond D, Kakkos SK, Sabetai M, et al. Juxtaluminal hypoechoic area in ultrasonic images of carotid plaques and hemispheric symptoms. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:69-76. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20537495

Abbott AL. Transcranial doppler and risk stratification in patients with internal carotid stenosis. In: Nicolaides A, Beech K, Pattichis C, Kyriacou E, eds. Ultrasound and carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Springer; 2011. LINK: http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781848826878

Kakkos, S. K, Nicolaides AN, Charalambous I, Georgiou N, Sabetai MM, Thomas D, Griffin MB, Makris GC, Giannopoulos A, Naylor AR, Geroulakos G and Abbott AL. "Predictors and Clinical Significance of Progression or Regression of Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis." J Vasc Surg. 2014;59:956-967. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24377944

Abbott, A., G. Geroulakos, D. P. Mikhailidis, A. N. Nicolaides, H. Sillesen and F. J. Veith (2014). "Regarding 'Progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis despite optimal medical therapy'." J Vasc Surg 59(6): 1752-1753. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24836773

Gupta A, Kesavabhotla K, Baradaran H, Kamel H, Pandya A, Giambrone AE, et al. Plaque echolucency and stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2015;46:91-97. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25406150


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Faculty Featured Publications. Please Click on the Link to a View Publication.


Priorities for Improving Outcomes in Patients with Asymptomatic and/or Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis

Abbott AL, Nicolaides AN. Improving outcomes in patients with carotid stenosis: Call for better research opportunities and standards. Stroke. 2015;46:7-8. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25406149

Giannoukas AD, Kotoula M, Spanos K, Tsironi E. Opthalmic outcomes should be included in future randomized control trials comparing carotid artery stenting vs. Carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic carotid disease. Int Angiol. 2015;34:503-505. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632852

Abbott AL, Paraskevas KI, Kakkos SK, Golledge J, Eckstein HH, Diaz-Sandoval LJ, et al. Systematic review of guidelines for the management of asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2015;46:3288-3301. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26451020
DOWNLOAD SUMMARY: Short Summary Abbott et al 2015.pdf

Veith FJ, Bell PR. How many of you can read but still not see? A comment on a recent review of carotid guidelines. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015 Dec 14. pii: S1078-5884(15)00770-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.10.017. [Epub ahead of print]. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26701193

Abbott AL. Critical issues that need to be addressed to improve outcomes for patients with carotid stenosis. Angiology 2016 May;67(5):420-6 2016: LINK: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26922085.


Screening for Subclinical (Symptom-free) Atherosclerosis (Arterial Disease)

Abbott, A.L. We Ready for Routine 'Subclinical' Atherosclerosis Screening? Not Yet. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 2016;52(3):313-316 LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27374815

Baber U, Mehran R, Sartori S, Schoos MM, Sillesen H, Muntendam P, et al. Prevalence, impact, and predictive value of detecting subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults: The Bioimage Study. J Am Coll Card (JACC). 2015;65:1065-1074 LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25790876


Importance of Using Our Finite Resources Wisely

Redberg RF. Squandering medicare's money. New York Times. 25th May 2011. New York Times website. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/26/opinion/26redberg.html?_r=0. Accessed January 23rd, 2016.


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Faculty Featured Publications. Please Click on the Link to a View Publication.


The Nature of Current Optimal Medical Treatment

Abbott A. Best medical intervention for arterial disease or wishful thinking. Eur J Vasc Endovas Surg. 2011;41:509-510. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21285001

Giannopoulos A, Kakkos S, Abbott A, Naylor AR, Richards T, Mikhailidis DP, et al. Long-term mortality in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Implications for statin therapy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26299982


Overviews of Best Management of Asymptomatic and/or Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis

Abbott AL, Bladin CF, Levi CR, Chambers BR. What should we do with asymptomatic carotid stenosis? Int J Stroke. 2007;2:27-39. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18705984

Abbott AL. Proximal internal carotid artery stenosis: Time to capitalise on current knowledge. In: Davies AH, ed. Fast facts: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Highlights, 2011-12. Edited by Alun H. Davies. Pages 28-37.; 2012:28-37. LINK: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Fast-Facts-Vascular-Endovascular-Highlights/dp/1908541261

Paraskevas, K. I., A. L. Abbott and F. J. Veith (2014). "Optimal management of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis: work in progress." Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 12(4): 437-441. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24597958


Carotid Stenosis and Particular Outcomes Apart from Stroke or Death

Paraskevas KI, Lazaridis C, Andrews CM, Veith FJ, Giannoukas AD. Comparison of cognitive function after carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014;47:221-231. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24393665

Giannoukas AD, Kotoula M, Spanos K, Tsironi E. Opthalmic outcomes should be included in future randomized control trials comparing carotid artery stenting vs. Carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic carotid disease. Int Angiol. 2015;34:503-505. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632852


Pitfalls in Conduct and Utilisation of Medical Research

Abbott A. Letter to the editor: Asymptomatic carotid stenosis--more misunderstandings in the expectation of a surgical benefit. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2011;13:265-267; author reply 268. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21523367

Paraskevas KI, Veith FJ, Riles TS, Moore WS. Is carotid artery stenting a fair alternative to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41:717-719. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21514187?dopt=Citation

Abbott AL. Carotid surgery or stenting following neck irradiation: Time to address the assumptions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012;43:8-9. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001146

Veith FJ. How can good randomized controlled trials in leading journals be so misinterpreted? J Vasc Surg. 2013;57:3S-7S. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23336854

Abbott AL. Bias in the use of randomized trials for carotid stenosis management. Gefasschirurgie. 2015;20:252-257. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26190904


The Importance of Registries For Optimising Patient Outcomes

Björck M, Bergqvist D, Eliasson K, Jansson I, Karlstrom L, Kragsterman B, et al. Twenty years with the swedvasc registry. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg.2008;35:129-130. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158260

McNeil JJ, Evans SM, Johnson NP, Cameron PA. Clinical-quality registries: Their role in quality improvement. Med J Aust. 2010;192:244-245. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20201755

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Operating principles and technical standards for Australian clinical registries. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Carewebsite: http://www.Med.Monash.Edu.Au/sphpm/creps/docs/operating-principals-and-technical-standards-nov-2008.pdf Novemeber, 2010. Accessed December 11, 2015.

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Framework for Australian clinical quality registries. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care website: http://www.Safetyandquality.Gov.Au/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/framework-for-australian-clinical-quality-registries.pdf March, 2014. Accessed December 11, 2015.

Liebeskind DS. Innovative interventional and imaging registries: Precision medicine in cerebrovascular disorders. Intervent Neurol. 2015;4:5-17. LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26600792


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Hotel Lights, Miami Beach, USA (FACTCAT AA)


Best Friends, Melbourne, Australia (FACTCAT AA)


Happy cats, Sheffield, UK (FACTCAT AA)


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